Friday, July 3, 2020

I Have a Dream Metaphoric Criticism - Free Essay Example

Rhetoric lies at the center of our human experience and facilitates human interaction. It consists of language (made up entirely of symbols) that ultimately allows us to construct our reality. A significant component of rhetoric is rhetorical criticism. Rhetorical criticism analyzes artifacts of communication; from images to phrases to films and speeches. It serves as a qualitative research method that strives to investigate and find an explanation for the true meaning behind these artifacts and their impact on our society. The entirety of this paper centers around the application of Metaphoric Criticism to the legendary I have a Dream speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, allowing us to surpass linguistic embellishment and acknowledge the injustice faced by the African American community. It elaborates on the context of the artifact, expands on the chosen rhetorical critic method, and significantly, showcases discoveries from applying rhetorical criticism to the artifact.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Beginning with an elaboration on the context of the chosen artifact, Martin Luther King stands as not only one of the most significant figures in American history but one of the most influential figures in the world. Fueled by the injustice surrounding segregation, African Americans began the fight for racial equality with the Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King, a young pastor from Atlanta, Georgia, stood at the center of this movement. His I have a Dream Speech (the most notable speech he gave throughout the course of his activism) put the Civil Rights Movement on the map. The speech was given in 1963 during the March on Washington, an event where hundreds of thousands of people gathered to advocate for freedom and jobs. After directing a nonviolent protest (the march), Dr. King took center stage at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. and began sharing his hopes and dreams for the American population. He identifies the role the Emancipatio n Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln played in freeing the American population and highlights how the change must continue until equality has been established. While countless inspirational artifacts exist in our society, this speech, as a result of its effective incorporation of metaphors, truly exemplifies the power of rhetoric and the role it plays in moving a nation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Now that the context of the artifact has been elaborated upon, lets discuss the chosen rhetorical criticism method. Metaphoric Criticism revolves around the use of metaphors in artifacts to convey the underlining message of the artifact. A metaphor can be defined as a figure of speech in which an action or phrase denoting a symbol is used in comparison to another as a way of illustrating meaning. There are two components to a metaphor, the tenor and the vehicle. The tenor can be described as the topic or subject that is being explained, while the vehicle is the mechanism or lens through which the topic is viewed (Foss, 285, 2018). These comparisons are nonliteral and simply suggest a similarity between the two words/phrases. To provide an example take the metaphor life is a journey. Life (the tenor) is compared to the journey (the vehicle), so as to more effectively capture the rigor and tedious nature of life. To continue with the discussion on metap hors, these forms of figurative language are linguistic embroidery that the rhetor uses only occasionally to give extra force to language (Foss, 286, 2018). Metaphors bring beauty and drama to an otherwise dry description. Often times, topics of discussion can be difficult to comprehend or difficult to mention candidly. Metaphors allow its rhetors to effectively capture these instances. The use and purpose of metaphors go far beyond being a form of decoration. Metaphors are also a constituting force by being a basic way by which the process of using symbols to construct reality occur (Foss, 287, 2018). Metaphors have the ability to shine a light of certain phenomena, while continuing to keep others hidden, paving the way to a formulation of perspective.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   With an understanding of the meaning of metaphors and the role they place in communication, lets delve deeper into metaphoric criticism. Sonja Foss highlights a four-step procedure to effectively utilizing and applying metaphoric criticism. The four-step procedure consists of selecting an artifact, analyzing the artifact, formulating a research question and writing the essay (Foss, 289, 2018). The significant aspect of this four-step procedure is the 2nd step, analyzing an artifact. Analyzing an artifact contains five essential parts: examining the artifact as a whole, isolating the metaphors, sorting the metaphors, and discovering an explanation for the artifact. Examining the artifact as a whole pertains to becoming familiar with the text or elements of the artifact and its context to gain a sense of the complete experience of the artifact (Foss, 290, 2018). Understanding the text as a whole improves understanding of the metaphors within them. The s econd step, isolating the metaphors, is as it says. It captures the process of isolating the metaphors used by the rhetor. Effectively identifying these metaphors is relevant for the next step, sorting the metaphors. This step involves sorting the metaphors you have identified into groups and looking for patterns (Foss, 293, 2018). Finding patterns leads to the creation of themes, which paves the way towards the last step of metaphoric criticism, discovering an explanation for the artifact. Also known as identifying the deeper meaning. Now that weve discussed the moving parts of Metaphoric Criticism, lets begin with the application by addressing the four components of metaphoric criticism previously discussed. We examined the artifact as a whole by elaborating on the context behind the I have a Dream speech and its significance. Lets proceed to the isolation of the metaphors within the speech itself. For the sake of comprehension and organization, the quotes highlighted will be numbered (with subscripts) for further analysis. At the beginning of the speech, MLK mentions the Emancipation Proclamation and how this momentous decree is a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice1 (King, 1963). With this metaphor, the emancipation proclamation, which serves as a tenor is compared to a beacon of hope, the vehicle. King also mentions that this sweltering summer of the Negros legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of fr eedom and equality2 (King 1963). With this metaphor, the anger of the African American community (tenor) is compared to the sweltering summer sun (vehicle) and freedom and equality (tenor) are compared to invigorating autumn (vehicle). Continuing with the isolation of metaphors from the artifact, King mentions toward the middle of the speech let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred3 (King 1963). Freedom (tenor) is compared to a draught (vehicle), while hatred (tenor) is compared to a cup of bitterness (vehicle). Other significant quotes from the artifact are the whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nations until the bright day of justice emerges4 and I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice5 (King, 1963). With the first quote, the danger that the nation will continue to face if the needs of the Civil Rights Movement are not met (the tenor) is compared to a whirlwind (vehicle). For the second quote, injustice and oppression (tenor) are compared to heat (vehicle), while freedom and justice (tenor) are compared to an oasis (vehicle). Following isolation of the metaphors, comes sorting of the metaphors. Exemplified through the highlighted quotes from the artifact, King relies heavily on weather metaphors and high and low contrasts. The theme of incorporating weather can be found in the 2nd, 4th, and 5th quotes, when he speaks of the sweltering summer, the invigorating autumn, the whirlwinds of revolt, the bright rays of justice, and the oasis of freedom. As for the high and low contrast, these can be found when King compares the whirlwinds of revolt (low) to the bright days of justice (high). It can also be found in his juxtaposition between the sweltering summer and the invigorating autumn (the 2nd quote). Another significant theme within Kings I have a Dream speech is the notion of love and brotherhood. Despite the injustice, the African American community continued to face and despite their efforts for equality being dismissed, King continues to stand by non-violent revolt and dispels anger and hatred. This is evident in the 3rd quote when he speaks of how the thirst (desire) for freedom and equality shouldnt be satisfied with bitterness and hatred. Its also evident when he argues we must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. He continues, we must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again, and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force (King, 1963). Even after personally experiencing the detrimental effects of racism and inequality, love stands at the center of his heart and he urges for it to stand at the center of the Civil Rights Movement. Weve isolated significant quotes from the artifact and sorted them through the creation of themes, so what does this analysis reveal about the artifact in particular and about the rhetorical process in general? Through metaphoric criticism, weve been able to gain a more profound insight into the intentions of Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement. Upon initial recognition, many viewed the intentions of MLK and the Civil Rights Movements as advocacy for the black perspective and moreover that their desires were driven by pain and hatred with no regard for how their actions could negatively impact the population at large. In addition to this, many (those around the world and in the United States) remained completely unaware of the struggles faced by the African American population. They believed the Emancipation Proclamation was sufficient and that through segregation (separate but equal) the circumstances of the black man had improved. MLKs I Have a Dream speech addressed t hese misconceptions. As revealed through Metaphoric Criticism, the metaphors embedded in his speech exemplified the true nature of the Civil Rights Movement and their true intentions. As previously mentioned in the 3rd and 6th quote (introduced above), King dismissed desires of hatred and bitterness and pushed for individuals to act with kindness and love. He encouraged the African American population and the world in general that violence, pain, and damage should be welcomed with dignity, discipline, and compassion. As for awareness regarding the struggles faced by the African American community, the metaphors within Kings I Have a Dream speech shines a light to its full extent. Lets take as an example the 2nd quote where King says this sweltering summer of the Negros legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality (King, 1963). As previously mentioned, the I Have a Dream speech was given in Washington D.C. Anyone who has spent a summer in the south or a nywhere, in general, know its accompanied by frustration, a sense of suffering, misery, and significantly, a longing for relief. Theres difficulty in understanding struggles faced by those outside your community. Metaphors such as the one mentioned above (and just about everywhere in the artifact), not only enable those outside the African American community to understand the extent of their struggle, but it allows them to relate to it, and become advocates for change. As exemplified through metaphoric criticism of Dr. Martin Luther Kings I Have a Dream speech, metaphors are far more than forms of figurative language. The metaphors highlighted in Kings speech drew on themes such as nature, brotherhood, compassion, and high/low juxtapositions. They made the American population and the world knowledgeable on the intentions of the black community, as well as the extent of their struggles. Metaphors and metaphoric criticism are means of exemplifying intentions, perspectives, and truth that would otherwise remain silent and submerged. They capture the power of rhetoric on the human experience and its ability to shape our reality. Through specific, purposeful, persuasive, and metaphoric communication, Kings speech propelled the American Civil Rights Movement and began the establishment of change and equality for all.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Effect of Music on Memory Retrieval - 3944 Words

EFFECT OF MUSIC ON MEMORY RETRIEVAL THESIS STATEMENT: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I. DEFINITION OF TERMS A. DICTIONARY DEFINITION B. OPERATIONAL DEFINITON II. WHAT IS MUSIC ON MEMORY RETRIEVAL. III. HOW CAN MUSIC AFFECT YOUR LIFE A. THEORIES OF FORGETTING B. MEMORY AND RELATED FINDINGS C. MUSIC AND RELATED STUDIES IV. HISTORY OF MUSIC V .ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE VI. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON MEMORY RETRIEVAL IN YOUR LIFE CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY ALIBASHER ABUBACAR IV-C MSU-ILS JANUARY 3, 2011 EFFECT OF MUSIC ON MEMORY RETRIEVAL Culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places ENGLISH IV MS. SALMA M. MACARAMBON Dedication To Her who is able to keep me from falling and to present me†¦show more content†¦Psychological study of music is based on this reason. Studies have found that music can reduce stress, aid relaxation, alleviate depression, and help store and recall information among other functions. William Congreve once stated that music has the charms to soothe the savage beast. Stress is reduced through music by decreasing the amount of the hormone cortisone released in the body. This can be applied to everyday life for stress relief (Music and Stress, 1998). Music therapy is a new intervention that uses music and musical activities for the purposes of altering behavior and enhancing the everyday existence of people with various types of emotional disturbance. People have been using forms of music therapy since the earliest recorded history. Egyptian priests spoke incantations that supposedly influenced women`s fertility. Hebrews and Greeks treated physical and mental illness with the playing of music. Zenocrates, Sarpander, and Arien, all of whom were Greeks, were the first to use music therapy as a regular practice. They employed harp music to ease the outbursts of people with mental illnesses (Shapiro, 1969). Nursing homes often hire music therapists. People are likely to feel depressed and grief-stricken when moved away from their homes and families into a facility for strangers to take care of them. Music therapy helps to relieve grief and improve emotional tones and feelings (Shapiro, 1969). Therapists can also help residents that suffer fromShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Cocaine On The Brain1130 Words   |  5 Pagesinvolved. George et al. (2008) wanted to explore the long lasting effects of self-administered cocaine on the prefrontal cortex of rats. They were observed when given extended (6 hours per session) and limited (1 hour per session) access to the cocaine. After the last administration of the drug the rats were given the task of completing a simple maze they had been conditioned to complete. Not only was the performance of this working memory task hindered, but the density of neurons and oligodendrocytesRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On Mental Health1550 Words   |  7 Pag esmost people, temporary levels of stress drop soon after the stimulus has passed. For others, the symptoms of anxiety continue well after the distressing circumstance is over (National Institute of Mental Health). Stress can lead to memory retention problems, and memory recall problems, in turn impacting ones work, social interactions, and eventually negatively impacting the quality of one’s life. Every person’s reaction to a stressor differs and is based on the way we see the event and our capacityRead MoreThe Human Cognition And Memory For This Year s Science Fair1806 Words   |  8 Pagesimmensely wanted to deal with the human cognition and memory for this year’s science fair. 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Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Cyber Crimes And Cyber Crime Essay - 729 Words

Cyber Crime is described as criminal activity committed via use of electronic communications with respect to cyber fraud or identity theft through phishing and spoofing. There are many other forms of cyber-crime also such as harassment, pornography etc. via use of information technology. Usually Cyber-crime is divided in below 3 categories: 1. Persons: Cyber Crime against person can be conducted in many ways as in today’s world all the personal information is available on internet and one can use this against a person. 2. Property: These kind of crimes includes unauthorized computer tres passing via cyber space, transmission of harmful programmer or possession of comutersied information. 3. Government: One of growing cyber-crime and very dangerous at high scale is cyber-crime against government. As terrorist may use cyber space to crack into the government or military maintained websites and can get access to the very secretive information or files which can damage the safety of the county and the citizens of the nation at large. Strict Cyber Law: Cyber Law was the first step taken by the government against the cyber-crime. According to this law if any one tries to destroy, alters or delete any data or damage it without any permission of the owner of the computer, shall be punishable offense. Similarly if any corporate body is maintaining or protecting data of the person or company and if any negligent act or failure found in protecting the data shall be liable to payShow MoreRelatedCyber Crimes And The Crime1153 Words   |  5 Pagesevolve with the trends in crime throughout history. Unfortunately for Law Enforcement, they are always on the back end of that and are often behind for months before being able to counteract. Cyber crimes are no different. 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Friday, May 15, 2020

Human Resources Information System in Management of Human...

Human Resources Information System in Management of Human Resources Contents 1.0 Introduction 2 2.0 Case studies one 2 2.1 Description 2 2.2 Advantages 3 2.3 Challenges 4 2.4 Organizational advantage 4 3.0 Case studies two 5 3.1 Description 5 3.2 Advantages 5 3.3 Challenges 6 3.4 Organizational advantage 7 4.0 Conclusion 7 5.0 References 8 1.0 Introduction In today s corporate world information system has come to play a very critical role in a business. An information system is used to collect, processes, store, analyse, and disseminate information for a specific purpose. (Turban, 2004) It includes inputs and outputs, and it processes the inputs by using technology, normally†¦show more content†¦So the company has been working to put in place a web-based enrolment system that employees and retirees can access from anywhere (Huering, 2003). 2.2 Advantages From 1999, IBM began using online enrolment system. It bridged many advantages for IBM Company. Two of important benefits are as following: †¢ For company, by utilizing the flexible-benefits application HRIS has to offer, IBM was able to cut costs. The company can save nearly $1.2 million per year on printing and mailing costs alone. †¢ For employees, online enrolment system gives employees the freedom to discover their benefits on their own time and pace. Employees can log in personally and are greeted by name and with important information regarding their benefits enrolment, such as the deadlines and when changes take effect. They automatically get access to health plans that are available to them, and the calculator lets them compare estimated benefit amounts for each plan. Employees can select the health care services which they expect to use in a particular year, estimate expected frequency of use, and calculate potential costs under each plan option. 2.3 Challenges HRIS can help company to reduce cost and improve the quality of management, but it also needs to face many challenges. There are two important challenges should be attention by company. †¢ The privacyShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Information System And Human Resources Management System1399 Words   |  6 PagesHRIS, which is also known as a human resource information system or human resource management system (HRMS), is basically an intersection of human resources and information technology through HR software. This allows HR activities and processes to occur electronically. To put it another way, a HRIS may be viewed as a way, through software, for businesses big and small to take care of a number of activities, including those related to human resources, accounting, management, and payroll. 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Human Resources Information System is a system that can keep track of all your employees and information to keep. It is, as a rule in a database or, more generally carried out in a series of connected databases. 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Information, technology impact is changing the whole concept of how the work place is managed, and I will point out the changes and enhancements to Human Resource Management and the employees. The information technology can save everyone time and expense once he or she learns how to use it efficiently. Human Resource will be impacted more than any otherRead MoreOrganization Planning, Project Management, and Information Technology1319 Words   |  6 PagesProject Management, and Information Technology The successful implementation and subsequent meaningful use of information technology solutions within a health care organization is a challenging and iterative process. The organization must engage in careful and ongoing strategic and tactical planning to ensure that the implemented technology will ultimately be effective and beneficial for its practitioners, staff, and patients. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Signs of Suicide Program - 1456 Words

Introduction This evaluation critique is focused on the article: â€Å"An Outcome Evaluation of the SOS Suicide Prevention Program,† by Robert H. Aseltine Jr, and Robert DeMartino. Based on their evaluation, the authors (2004) conclude that the SOS program was successful as â€Å"significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group† (p. 446). Program Background The Signs of Suicide (SOS) program is an educational approach in reducing suicidal behaviors among students. It is school-based preventative program that â€Å"incorporates two prominent suicide prevention strategies into a single program by combining curricula to raise†¦show more content†¦448). Second, the authors (2004) utilize â€Å"HLM 5 software to perform 2-level multivariate analyses of program effects† (p. 448). For each outcome variables, there are two major corresponding equations: For level-1 analysis (Student as unit of analysis), (1) â€Å"Yij =B0j + B1jFemaleij + B2–5jRaceij +B6jESLij + B7–9jGradeij + eij† In this equation, â€Å"Y represents the predicted value of each outcome variable for each individual (i) in the classroom (j); Female, Race, and ESL represent a series of dummy variables for the demographic control variables included in the analysis; and e represents random error† (Aseltine DeMartino, 2004, p. 448). For level-2 analysis (Classroom as unit of analysis), (2) â€Å"B0j =G00 + G01Treatmentj + U0j† In this equation, â€Å"random error U0j represent residual variability in treatment effect; all demographic control variables were modeled as fixed effects (i.e., B1j =G10)† (Aseltine DeMartino, 2004, p. 448). Evaluation Strengths At first glance, the evaluation is well-conducted and carefully discussed by Aseltine and DeMartino without hesitation to outline potential issues with SOS’s long-term impact and weakness of the evaluation as a whole. More importantly, the evaluation methods are well-suited to the question askedShow MoreRelatedScreening for Mental Health630 Words   |  3 Pagesby Screening for Mental Health [SMH], the program is called Signs of Suicide [SOS]. The Signs of Suicide program is an award winning program and it is also a nationally recognized program (). The Signs of Suicide program is designed for youth of various ages ranging from middle school and the way to high school (). This program helps students learn how to point out signs of depression and suicide in themselves or in their friends or family. 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Production Roles in Performing Arts Research Essay Production Roles in the Performing Arts Industry Artistic Director Roles and Responsibilities: Artistic_ Directors are mainly responsible for creating, developing and employing the artistic vision of the production company. They are also inconceivably involved in the development of making the production more aesthetically pleasing, often consulting with the Chief Administrative Officer. Sometimes these two roles are combined into one. Other responsibilities include: hiring, and constantly checking on and helping other artistic members Of the crew, e. . The Stage manager and performers; ring and constantly helping technical directors, and other important people involved in the performance; developing an annual budget for the program: acting as a spokesperson during public appearances and/or fundraising events; directing some productions; reporting progress to the Board Of Directors regularly; helping make sure that rules are maintained; and creating relationships with other organizati ons, by participating in meetings and gatherings when suitable. Employment: Usually, artistic directors are employed on a long term basis for a specific production company, although sometimes they will be brought in to a specific reference, as they may be experienced in a certain field. Artistic directors tort ballet companies are often retired dancers, unlike artistic directors in general theatre, who will usually not be experienced in performing. These directors are employed in: film and video businesses; TV; and generic theatres, Job opportunities in this field are quite poor, due to competition. Training/Qualifications: Although no specific training or qualification is required for this job, significant experience in this field, such as in choreography, directing plays, or script writing, s expected to become an artistic director. Useful subjects to have qualifications in include: English, Performing Arts, Film and Theatre Production, Classics, History, Music and Business Management. Some very useful personal skills include: creativity; imagination; influence; patience; focus; good at team leading; communication and people skills; persistence; culturally aware; able to make decisions, and cope under pressure. Salary: Salaries within this job vary extensively, due to deviations in levels of experience, however the average salary range is around Ell 750 Gouge p. Obviously, this means that some artistic directors feel the need to complete other jobs, to supplement their income, Which may be so low for such a hard job because Of the recession, which mean that not so many people go to theatres anymore. Stage Manager There are many responsibilities that Stage Managers are expected to fulfill. It is important that stage managers work with and closely support the directors, actors, and the rest of the production team in a professional manner throughout all of the rehearsal process. Required to record blocking, scheduling, technical ND set notes in an important document called The Book, this important job role is an additional means of communication between actors and directors, also enabling directors to have a less stressful time trying to do too many things at once, Other responsibilities include: scheduling and helping to run rehearsals; coordinating the stage crew; helping organize and cue performers during the performance; overseeing the performance when performed (taking over the directing position); marking out the floor, appropriate to the stage; helping in technical rehearsals; notify other members of changes in meetings; keeping n eye on props organization; calling for breaks and efficiently managing time; planning for set changes; arranging basic catering and Of absolute paramount importance, caring for the cast. Stage managers can be employed in all theatre companies in the LIKE, whether they be touring or commercial. Jobs can be found in fringe the atres, educational theatres, and even prison theatres! In addition, since stage managing is usually a seasonal job, some travel to festivals and theme parks to look for work, in the times of the year when they dont have a steady income. Most employment for tag management is done through personal contact, not agencies you have to send off your application to a company yourself. To become a stage manager, you dont need any specific degree, but one in performing arts, music, or theatre studies improves your chance of employment. Even better is a degree which is recognized by the National Council for Drama Training, and some drama school offer specific courses, e. G. A qualification in *Technical Theatre. A post-graduate qualification will also help further employment chances. Langston Huges EssayThe director, to make such a performance happen, need to: interpret the script well, so they know how they Will portray the playwrights intentions; go through the script and pick out any significant psychological or physical aspects of characters, and then cast accordingly to these requirements: plan rehearsals and company meetings; and act as a guiding light for the actors in their preparation for the performance, and during rehearsals. However, arguably the most important aspect of a directors job is working tit and communicating effectively with all of the designers, whether that be costume, set, lighting, or sound. Directors are expected to have initial meetings with all of these designers, in order to discuss the creativity needed to produce an effective piece to art. Tater details theses technicalities have been discussed, it is expected of directors that they work and support actors, showing good communication and understanding towards contributions perfo rmers may have themselves. Motivations and deeper character developments are what directors strive to construct. When rehearsals are over, the directors job is completed. Directors have many opportunities to favor in different theatres around the country, and London is a good choice for freelance directors. This includes both receiving and producing theatres. There are also job opportunities in less familiar settings, much like for Stage managers, in places such as prisons, community theatres, and much more common nowadays, in festivals, such as the Edinburgh Fringe, and Where our unit 2 performance Will be, venue-wise. Directors are usually selected through word-of-mouth. Much like in other Performing Arts jobs, it is not required to have any specific lubrication in anything, although it does help if a relevant course has been undertaken, and if experience in any Performing Arts event is illustrated. Some useful qualification subjects are: English, Music, Performing Arts, Media Studies and History. Training is not needed either, but it is very useful to have experience in: journalism; research; administration; accountancy; marketing management; editing; and camera operation. Average salaries for directors range from IEEE El 300 per week. However, some directors are self-employed and therefore pay themselves very little to reduce costs. Marketing Manager There are many different responsibilities that a marketing team have to realism for a performance. Therefore, some roles may be distributed between many different people, e. G. Nee person may be placed as an actual publicist, and another as a marketing manager. The responsibilities of the whole team a re as follows: conduct effective market research into the intended audience, which should help shape the artistic vision of the performance and influence the themes and plot utilized as part of the performance; create/edit newsletters, articles on websites, or brochures on upcoming events and performances; become a spokesperson/ plan towards/ organize interviews for the company, publicity wise; help to develop future company plans; understand how to effectively communicate with the target audience; identify key media problems for the company, and respond to them (e. G. Rate a website); keep all staff up to date faith important news; arrange interviews about the company, rather than the a specific production, vivid TV, radio, or magazines; design and distribute advertisements; and co-operate with reviewers. Marketing managers are employed in all sectors in the ASK, including Performing Arts, and so they are employed in venues such as theatres and cinemas, but they are mainly clustere d around major cities such as London and Birmingham, making job competition very intense. There is no straight path to being employed, however some theatre marketing managers often progress into their role after several years of other marketing experience, effete have a passion for and/or qualifications in Performing Arts.