Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing involves: 1.Managing profitable customer relationships 2.Awareness Ã¢â¬â attracting/retaining customers 3.Increasing a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to pay Ã¢â¬ ¢Breadth and Depth of Marketing Market: people with desire and ability to buy a specific product All organizations market and people market themselves Ã¢â¬ ¢Dating, PEY oIdeas and values are marketed Buyers may be different than end customer (B2B, B2C) Social Marketing: influence behavior of individuals, benefit to individuals or society not marketer Ã¢â¬ ¢Anti-smoking Ã¢â¬ ¢Consumer Behaviour (B2C/B2B) Heart of marketing satisfying needs and wants of consumers better than competition oValue is only what is perceived by consumer CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s see solutions for delivering customer value, not in terms of attributes Ã¢â¬ ¢Fundamental Principles of Marketing oWhat are drivers of customer value? Their benefits/costs Ã¢â¬ ¢Consumers Who are the competitors that satisfy the similar needs Ã¢â¬ ¢The competitors Offer a product/service whose attributes deliver the value as good as or better than the competitors Ã¢â¬ ¢The Company Ã¢â¬ ¢Methods of Discovering customer behavior Needs: Psychological deprivation (food, shelter) Wants: Needs shaped by culture and the individual (burger vs. Tofu) oQualitative research Quantitative Research Feedback Competitive intelligence Socio-economic trends Consumer purchase decision process Ã¢â¬ ¢Buyers may skip a stage depending on how involved they are in the purchase: oHigh involvement if product is: Ã¢â¬ ¢Expensive Ã¢â¬ ¢Serious personal consequences Ã¢â¬ ¢Reflects social image High involvement results in consideration of Ã¢â¬ ¢More brands Ã¢â¬ ¢More product attributes Ã¢â¬ ¢More information sources Ã¢â¬ ¢More time spent searching High involvement Ã¢â¬ ¢Provide education about category and info on product Low involvement Ã¢â¬ ¢Buyers react to price, convenience and familiarity Ã¢â¬ ¢The Marketing Process Identify Consumer Needs & Wants Ã¢â¬ ¢Needs: Psychological deprivation (food, shelter, etc.) Ã¢â¬ ¢Wants: Needs shaped by culture and the individual (burgers vs. tofu) oSegment, Target and Position (STP) Ã¢â¬ ¢Segmentation and Targeting Ã¢â¬â Who to Serve Ã¢â¬ ¢Choose which customers to serve Ã¢â¬ ¢Positioning Ã¢â¬â How to Serve Ã¢â¬ ¢Identify key benefits of offering, points of difference with rivals oDevelop and Execute a Marketing program based on the Marketing Mix (4 Ps) Ã¢â¬ ¢Product Ã¢â¬ ¢Features, brand name, packaging, service, warranty Ã¢â¬ ¢Place Ã¢â¬ ¢Outlets, channels, coverage, transportation Ã¢â¬ ¢Price Ã¢â¬ ¢List price, rebates, discounts, payment period Ã¢â¬ ¢Promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢Advertising, sales promotion, merchandising, personal selling, publicity Ã¢â¬ ¢How to Position yourself with customers Ã¢â¬ ¢Market leader Encourage habitual purchase, keep quality high, reinforcing ads, avoid stock outs Ã¢â¬ ¢Challengers Encourage variety seeking Encourage trial (coupons), try something new ads Build Profitable Customer Relationships Ã¢â¬ ¢Basic Relationships (low-margin customers) vs. Full Relationships (key / dominant customers) Ã¢â¬ ¢Frequency marketing programs Ã¢â¬ ¢Rewards, encourage customers to spend more Ã¢â¬ ¢Club marketing programs Ã¢â¬ ¢Offer members discounts for being member Ã¢â¬ ¢Customer Satisfaction Ã¢â¬ ¢Satisfied customers are loyal (migrate rate of 5%) Ã¢â¬ ¢Refer company to others (tell average of 3 others) Ã¢â¬ ¢Less price sensitive Ã¢â¬ ¢Customer Dissatisfaction Ã¢â¬ ¢Migrate at 40% Ã¢â¬ ¢DonÃ¢â¬â¢t complain (96% never report back) Ã¢â¬ ¢Tell average of 11 people about problems oManage Product Portfolio Ã¢â¬ ¢Should you keep all your products? Ã¢â¬ ¢Should market them all the same way? Ã¢â¬ ¢Can you increase the products in your portfolio? Ã¢â¬ ¢BCG Growth Share Matrix Ã¢â¬ ¢Market Growth Rate (y-axis) vs. Relative Market Share (x-axis) Ã¢â¬ ¢High Ã¢â¬â High: Stars Ã¢â¬ ¢Low Ã¢â¬â High: Cash Cows Ã¢â¬ ¢High Ã¢â¬â Low: Question Marks Ã¢â¬ ¢Low Ã¢â¬â Low: Dogs MarketsProducts CurrentNew CurrentMarket Penetration -Selling more products in existing marketsProduct Development -Selling new products in existing markets NewMarket Development -Selling existing products in new markets (geographic or new segments)Diversification -Selling a new product in new markets How your product portfolio could be expanded Tim HortonÃ¢â¬â¢s: MarketsProducts CurrentNew CurrentMarket Penetration -High density in geographic area -Heavy advertising -High demand to be franchisors -Regularly upgrades facilitiesProduct Development -Bagels and cappuccino -Sandwiches, wraps, soups NewMarket Development -Expansion to campuses -TimShop (online) -Expansion into U.S.Diversification -Partnered with U.S.-based Cold Stone Creamery Lecture 7 Ã¢â¬ ¢5 steps of STP oGroup potential buyers into segments Ã¢â¬ ¢Geographic, demographic, psychographic, behavioral Ã¢â¬ ¢How do organizational buyers differ Ã¢â¬ ¢Demand for your product is derived from demand of buyers product Ã¢â¬ ¢Fate tied to buyers fate Ã¢â¬ ¢Common to have Few dominant customers and long term relationships Provide competitive bids Have multiple people involved in the purchase Ã¢â¬ ¢To increase likelihood of B2B success Ã¢â¬ ¢Understand the purchasing organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs Ã¢â¬ ¢Understand the organization buying process oRight bidding list, who is influential and who to pay attention to oGroup products to be sold into categories Ã¢â¬ ¢Multiple products with some common trait (often consumer type) Ã¢â¬ ¢Useful where multi consumer type, each with own needs, but not one product to meet all needs Ã¢â¬ ¢Business vs commercial aircraft Develop Market/product grid and estimate size of market Select Target Markets Ã¢â¬ ¢Expected Financial Performance Ã¢â¬ ¢Size and growth, purchasing power, profits Ã¢â¬ ¢Competitive Position Ã¢â¬ ¢Competitive in segment now and over time Ã¢â¬ ¢Accessibility Ã¢â¬ ¢Segment can be reached and served at reasonable price Ã¢â¬ ¢Fit with the Organization Ã¢â¬ ¢You can deliver an effective marketing program oTake marketing actions to reach target market Ã¢â¬ ¢4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ ¢Product positioning Head-to-head or Differentiation Ã¢â¬ ¢Challenges in repositioning To change how consumers view an offering relative to competition oHuge advertising costs to change beliefs of people Consumers may be confused about what your brand stands for oConsumers may not buy your claim Why reposition Ã¢â¬ ¢Reacting to competition Ã¢â¬ ¢New Balance vs. Nike Ã¢â¬ ¢Reaching new market Ã¢â¬ ¢Chocolate milk for adults Ã¢â¬ ¢Catching a rising trend Ã¢â¬ ¢Health trends Ã¢â¬ ¢Changing the value added Ã¢â¬ ¢Trade down or up Lecture 8 Ã¢â¬ ¢First P in 4 Ps (Ã¢â¬Å"ProductÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬ ¢Hard to do well o90% of new products fail in first year oCommon among successes Ã¢â¬ ¢Uniquely, superior point of difference Ã¢â¬ ¢Has to work well, has to be valued in the market Lecture 9 Pricing and Channels Ã¢â¬ ¢2 Ps: Price and Place Ã¢â¬ ¢Price The money exchanged for ownership of goods/services Prices involves perception of value and will vary Ã¢â¬ ¢Cheaper price for equivalent quality has higher value Ã¢â¬ ¢Higher price can signal quality (watches, cars) Ã¢â¬ ¢There is a tradition of getting stuff for free or very cheap over internet that is hard to change (vs. by phone or TV) Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing matters a lot Affects customersÃ¢â¬â¢ view Discussion starts with pricing, Ã¢â¬ ¢Goes more generally to marketing than strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢Why change your price? Demand, cost, competition Ã¢â¬ ¢How will people react People place premium on option, if feel getting less, will be dissatisfied and feel violated Ã¢â¬ ¢Market mix over product life cycle for price (in order of 4 stages) oSkimming penetration, gain market share, defend market, stay profitable Ã¢â¬ ¢Factors affecting pricing decisions oInternal Factors Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing mix strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢Costs Ã¢â¬ ¢Organizational considerations External Factors Ã¢â¬ ¢Demand Ã¢â¬ ¢Competition, resellers Ã¢â¬ ¢Economy Ã¢â¬ ¢Government Ã¢â¬ ¢Steps in setting prices Identify pricing constraints and objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢Constraints Ã¢â¬ ¢Demand, stage in product life cycle, single vs product line, cost of producing, marketing, changing prices, Competitive market and competitors Ã¢â¬ ¢Objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢Profit or just survival Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales and or market share (revenue, unit volume) Ã¢â¬ ¢Social responsibility Estimate demand and revenue Ã¢â¬ ¢All else being equal, as price falls, demand increase Ã¢â¬ ¢Except for Ã¢â¬ ¢Luxury goods Ã¢â¬ ¢Demands also affected by oPrice and availability Income levels Changing buyer tastes and preferences Ã¢â¬ ¢Marketing Managers want to know Ã¢â¬Å"price elasticityÃ¢â¬ of demand Ã¢â¬ ¢% change in quantity demanded relative to % change in price oSlope of demand curve Elastic demand Ã¢â¬ ¢Slight decrease in price, steep increase in demand Ã¢â¬ ¢Substitutes usually (no alternatives usually non elastic) oEstimate Cost, volume, profit relationships Ã¢â¬ ¢Total cost = total fixed cost + total variable costs Ã¢â¬ ¢Break-even analysis (sales equal costs): Ã¢â¬ ¢Determines profitability at different levels of sales Ã¢â¬ ¢BEP = Total fixed cost / (unit price Ã¢â¬â unit variable cost) oSelect an approximate price level Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing based on demand Ã¢â¬ ¢skimming pricing Ã¢â¬â high price when hungry initial buyers are not price sensitive Ã¢â¬ ¢penetration pricing Ã¢â¬â low price to attract buyers (wii) Ã¢â¬ ¢prestige pricing Ã¢â¬â signal quality with the price Ã¢â¬ ¢price lining Ã¢â¬â set of prices through a product line (ex. bauer 70, 80, 90, apx) Ã¢â¬ ¢odd-even pricing Ã¢â¬â prices ending in .99 seem lower Ã¢â¬ ¢target pricing Ã¢â¬â when a specific price to buyer is a goal Ã¢â¬ ¢bundle pricing Ã¢â¬â price for a package of multiple products Ã¢â¬ ¢yield management pricing Ã¢â¬â match demand and supply dynamically to customize prices Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing based on cost Ã¢â¬ ¢standard mark-up Ã¢â¬â add a fixed percentage to the cost of all similar items Ã¢â¬ ¢cost-plus pricing Ã¢â¬â add a mark-up to the cost (consulting) Ã¢â¬ ¢experience curve pricing Ã¢â¬â lower the price as your own costs come down the learning curve Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing based on profit (little role for demand and competition) Ã¢â¬ ¢target profit pricing Ã¢â¬ ¢target return-on-sales pricing Ã¢â¬ ¢target return-on-investment pricing Ã¢â¬ ¢Pricing based on the competition Ã¢â¬ ¢Customary pricing (ie. Swatch, chocolate bars) (all the same) Ã¢â¬ ¢price above, at or below similar products Ã¢â¬ ¢Loss leader pricing Ã¢â¬â sell something at a discount to get people into your store oSet up the list (quoted) price Ã¢â¬ ¢One price for all flexible pricing Ã¢â¬ ¢Must be consistent with all products in product line Ã¢â¬ ¢Must be legal Ã¢â¬ ¢Must be consistent with client perceptions of product Ã¢â¬ ¢Needs to avoid price-cutting by competitors Ã¢â¬ ¢Price cut only when you can win (rare) Ã¢â¬ ¢Have cost or tech advantage over rivals oMake adjustments to the price Ã¢â¬ ¢Discounts Ã¢â¬ ¢Quantity, BOGO Ã¢â¬ ¢Seasonal Ã¢â¬ ¢Functional/Trade Ã¢â¬ ¢Cash Ã¢â¬ ¢Allowances Ã¢â¬ ¢Trade in allowance for buyers Ã¢â¬ ¢Promotional allowance Ã¢â¬ ¢EDLP (no need to wait for sales) Ã¢â¬ ¢Geographical Adjustments Ã¢â¬ ¢Transportation/shipping costs and whether buy or seller pays Ã¢â¬ ¢Market mix over product life cycle (Place/channels) Limited, build, selective, more intensive distribution, fewer selective Ã¢â¬ ¢Channel Individuals or firms that help get the product/service to the end user Ã¢â¬ ¢B2C directly, or use intermediary, such as future shop (less contacts) oRetailers are channels (but so are distributors and resellers) Ã¢â¬ ¢Benefits of direct channels (producer to seller) Greater control Lower variable cost Direct contact Quicker response to changes No need to look for middleman Internet makes direct distribution easy Ã¢â¬ ¢Benefits of indirect channels Fewer contacts to manage Can match product assortment with customers Less need for producer to have a sales presence Allows multiple channels for same product Ã¢â¬ ¢Apple through site, apple store, BestBuy Leverage a channel partner with existing customer relations oLower fixed cost (no sales team) Ã¢â¬ ¢Conflicts between channel partners Vertical conflict Ã¢â¬ ¢Issues in chain (producer to retailer) Horizontal Conflict Ã¢â¬ ¢Issues at same level (retailer to retailer) Ã¢â¬ ¢Challenges of moving from indirect to direct May lose distribution (disintermediation) Buyer loyalty to retailer not product Extra costs involved (e-tail, shipping, sales, customer services) Ã¢â¬ ¢Factors in choosing a channel Business environment Characteristics of your customers Ã¢â¬ ¢Who, what, where Characteristics of your product (complex or evangelize) Ã¢â¬ ¢Ice-cream vs. jets Characteristics of your company (B2B, global, languages) What channels and intermediaries are most profitable Lecture 10 Ã¢â¬ ¢4th P, Promotions Ã¢â¬ ¢The communication process oSee chart in lecture notes by Chris Ã¢â¬ ¢The promotional mix What communication tools are available Ã¢â¬ ¢Advertising Ã¢â¬ ¢Vary Expensive (variable_, provides reasons to buy products Ã¢â¬ ¢Control over channel of message Ã¢â¬ ¢Large numbers see message Ã¢â¬ ¢Hard to determine response Ã¢â¬ ¢Personal selling Ã¢â¬ ¢Face-to-face Ã¢â¬ ¢Very expensive (fixed cost) Ã¢â¬ ¢Control over message (sales people can differ( Ã¢â¬ ¢Targeted receivers Ã¢â¬ ¢Immediate responses Ã¢â¬ ¢Public relations Ã¢â¬ ¢Unpaid, non-personal communication, from third party Ã¢â¬ ¢Little control over message Ã¢â¬ ¢Highly credible, not seen as self-serving Ã¢â¬ ¢Hard to know responses Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢Samples, coupons, rebates Ã¢â¬ ¢76% of marketing expenditures for packaged goods Ã¢â¬ ¢Short run (decline in advertising efficiency) Ã¢â¬ ¢Control over message (not building loyalty) Ã¢â¬ ¢Immediate Response Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct marketing Ã¢â¬ ¢Over phone, or internet Ã¢â¬ ¢Mass or micro, becomes annoying (telemarketers) Ã¢â¬ ¢Control over message Ã¢â¬ ¢Targeted received Ã¢â¬ ¢Immediate responses Ã¢â¬ ¢Developing the promotional mix In product life cycle: to inform, to persuade, to remind Product characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢Level of complexity Ã¢â¬ ¢More complex, more personal selling Ã¢â¬ ¢Potential Risk (financial, social, physical) Ã¢â¬ ¢Greater risk, more personal selling Ã¢â¬ ¢Ancillary services (service/ support required post sale) Ã¢â¬ ¢Advertising establishes reputation Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct marketing can describe customization Ã¢â¬ ¢Personal selling builds buyer confidence and provides evidence of customer service oKnow your target market Ã¢â¬ ¢Who is buyer and what is buying behaviour Ã¢â¬ ¢Place of purchase, reason, how big is market (mass or custom, first time or repeat oDecision stage of buyer Ã¢â¬ ¢See chart in ChrisÃ¢â¬â¢ lecture notes oChannel strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢Push (want channel to sell it, target channel not end consumer) Ã¢â¬ ¢Push product through channel with goal of getting channel members to push it to customers Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct promotional mix to channel members to gain cooperation Ã¢â¬ ¢Personal selling and sales promotions play major roles Ã¢â¬ ¢Pull (channel users want to get it from you, targeted at end consumer more) Ã¢â¬ ¢Product is pulled through channels Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to demand product Ã¢â¬ ¢Mainly advertising and direct marketing to reach end consumers Ã¢â¬ ¢Developing, executing and evaluating the integrated marketing communications program oCoordinates all promotional activities to provide a consistent message across all touch points oKnow target audience and how to market to them oIMC Program 3 stages Ã¢â¬ ¢Planning Stage Ã¢â¬ ¢Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial Ã¢â¬ ¢Set budget based off o% of sales Competitive parity All you can afford Ã¢â¬ ¢Design promotion, schedule it Ã¢â¬ ¢Implementation Ã¢â¬ ¢Execute the promotion plan Ã¢â¬ ¢Carry out promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢Control Ã¢â¬ ¢Post-test the promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢Make needed changes Evaluating IMC Ã¢â¬ ¢Important to measure ROI Ã¢â¬ ¢How many views, traffic to site, coupon redemption rate Ã¢â¬ ¢Can occur during both implementation and control Lecture 11 Ã¢â¬ ¢Three options/Modes for exploiting your new product or technology oLicensing Ã¢â¬ ¢When to consider Ã¢â¬ ¢When you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the resources to bring it to market and donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to develop them Ã¢â¬ ¢When you want to get the technology to market fast (win standards race) Ã¢â¬ ¢When you want to stop other firms from R&D and patenting Ã¢â¬ ¢Risks Ã¢â¬ ¢Beneficial only while you have technological advantage Create a standard Stay at leading edge Ã¢â¬ ¢Requires strong IP protection Ã¢â¬ ¢Dependent on others for market success Ã¢â¬ ¢May lock you into something when market is still emerging oPartnering (selling a component) Ã¢â¬ ¢When to consider Ã¢â¬ ¢When you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the resources to bring it to market Ã¢â¬ ¢When you want to get the technology to market fast Ã¢â¬ ¢When credible partners can be identified and their endorsement sends a signal Ã¢â¬ ¢When you are strategically important to partner Ã¢â¬ ¢Risks Ã¢â¬ ¢Larger, more established firms can take advantage (price/terms) Ã¢â¬ ¢Partner can deskill you Ã¢â¬ ¢Dependent on partner Market success and access to info and management Ã¢â¬ ¢Partner can become disinterested oDIY (Do it yourself) Ã¢â¬ ¢When to consider Ã¢â¬ ¢Can bring it to market yourself or want to develop capabilities Ã¢â¬ ¢When you have resources to do it Ã¢â¬ ¢Understand requirements and behaviour of end consumer Ã¢â¬ ¢Want to brand it with your name Ã¢â¬ ¢You have clout with your ecosystem of players Ã¢â¬ ¢Risks Ã¢â¬ ¢Bleeding edge- rivals learn from your mistakes Ã¢â¬ ¢Effort spent on marketing and distribution makes you lag in R&D Ã¢â¬ ¢Lose nimbleness and speed Ã¢â¬ ¢Understand market (buyers, competition and overall market (size and growth) Ã¢â¬ ¢Want to devise an entry strategy to leverage advantages oEmphasize speed for lead time Ã¢â¬ ¢Product, technology, people, partners, locations Ã¢â¬ ¢Set up intangible entry barriers rather than relying only on proprietary advantage like patents oEmphasize selective focus Ã¢â¬ ¢Clearly defined target market Ã¢â¬ ¢Clearly defined partners, channels, suppliers Plus allow for experimentation Ã¢â¬ ¢Adaptable and liquid resources & capabilities (rent, borrow or share) Decision depends on Ã¢â¬ ¢Where you see future of company Ã¢â¬ ¢Stability of industry Ã¢â¬ ¢Value to other players Ã¢â¬ ¢Potential for IP protection Ã¢â¬ ¢Becoming a platform leader Industry platform is foundation technology or service that is essential for a broader, interdependent ecosystem of business Ã¢â¬ ¢Requires innovations to be useful Ã¢â¬ ¢No longer under full control of originator, may contain propriety elements oNeed to decide if you are going to purse a product or platform strategy oAchieving platform status requires specific decisions that govern Ã¢â¬ ¢Technology evolution Ã¢â¬ ¢Product and systems design Ã¢â¬ ¢Business relationships within ecosystem oMany companies donÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed as they fail to tackle both: Ã¢â¬ ¢Technology Ã¢â¬ ¢Designing right interfaces, architecture, disclosing IP Ã¢â¬ ¢Business Ã¢â¬ ¢Making key complements, introducing incentives, defeat competing platforms oPlatform potential Ã¢â¬ ¢Must satisfy two prerequisite conditions Ã¢â¬ ¢Perform at least one essential function within system of use or solve an essential tech problem in an industry Ã¢â¬ ¢Should be easy to connect to or build upon to expand system of use as well as allow new or even unintended end users Google is coring in internet search. Linus in web server operating systems for tipping. Ã¢â¬ ¢Intellectual Property Protection Legal right granted by a government that allows inventor to preclude others from using the same invention for a maximum of 20 years oNeed to demonstrate that invention is Ã¢â¬ ¢Novel Ã¢â¬ ¢Not Obvious Ã¢â¬ ¢Useful Ã¢â¬ ¢Secret when the patent application is filed Benefits Ã¢â¬ ¢Blocks others from using invention Ã¢â¬ ¢Raises the cost of imitation by rivals Ã¢â¬ ¢Helps to raise capital by signaling a competitive advantage Ã¢â¬ ¢Helps in negotiating rights oLimitations Ã¢â¬ ¢Requires disclosure of the invention in all countries Ã¢â¬ ¢Monopoly is temporary Ã¢â¬ ¢Rivals can often work around Ã¢â¬ ¢Long, complex, costly to defend Ã¢â¬ ¢Can be irrelevant if technology moves quickly Lecture 12: Business Start Up Ã¢â¬ ¢Entrepreneurship Approaches Ã¢â¬ ¢Causal Logic (start with goals expect return) Ã¢â¬ ¢Evaluate opportunities on measurable market demand & competition Ã¢â¬ ¢Select option with highest expected return Ã¢â¬ ¢Specify resources needed to get the outcome you want Ã¢â¬ ¢Most often used in developed, familiar products/markets Ã¢â¬ ¢Means-Based (start with means avoid loss) Ã¢â¬ ¢Evaluate alternatives based on given set of means + low cost experiments Ã¢â¬ ¢Select option based on affordable loss rather than expected return Ã¢â¬ ¢Obtain pre-commitments with customers, suppliers Ã¢â¬ ¢Most often used in uncertain products / markets Ã¢â¬ ¢Dealing with Uncertainty Ã¢â¬ ¢Entrepreneurs pick a comfortable level of risk and push to increase return oBankers pick a desired level of return and push to reduce risk
Sunday, September 29, 2019
On May of 1607, the first English colony in the present-day United States was founded at Jamestown, Virginia (A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States of America, 2007). After many years, a Dutch ship arrived at the port of Jamestown and brought about twenty African slaves to the English colonists. Thus, the so-called African slave trade began. The African slaves came from the savannahs of central and southern Africa. The Dutch often called them Ã¢â¬Å"humanlikeÃ¢â¬ monkeys, barbarians, and uncivilized brutes. Thus, the Dutch preferred locking them in the sub cabins of their caravels (A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States of America, 2007). They were irregularly provided with food. Most of the times, they were held in chains (because the Dutch were afraid that they might cause some trouble in the ship). When they were brought to Jamestown, their condition worsened. They were forced to work in flat farmlands at least 15 hours a day. Large plantations of cotton and other agricultural products were assigned to them by the English colonists without pay. Although they were provided with housing, it was in shambles. The houses were designed in the form of Ã¢â¬Å"barnyardÃ¢â¬ to accommodate as many slaves as possible (a form of segregation). Added to that, this type of housing was a means for the English colonists to Ã¢â¬Å"distinguishÃ¢â¬ themselves from these Ã¢â¬Å"lofty and barbaricÃ¢â¬ human beings. The food provided by the English colonists was never adequate to balance the energy the slaves consumed in farm work. Added to that, the children of African slaves were also forced to work in the plantations. Their work varied, from weaving cotton to harvesting agricultural products. The landlords, insensitive to the contributions of these African slaves to their estates, usually utilized the Ã¢â¬Å"whipÃ¢â¬ against the African slaves as a form of disciplinary measure. Thus, not only the African slaves provided a cheap and efficient source of agricultural and household labor, they were also the source of prejudice, discrimination (described above), racism, and Ã¢â¬Å"embarrassmentÃ¢â¬ to the English colonists. For example, the English colonists did not regard the African slaves as a separate race. The English colonists regarded them as Ã¢â¬Å"subhuman, but a little higher than primates. Even after the Declaration of Independence, the descendants of these slaves were not better of. Usually, the American landlords regarded them as personal properties. They had no civil or political rights. At times, American colonists in the West used them as soldiers (unpaid) in its wars with Indian tribes. Thus, it can be said that the history of African-Americans was a history of discrimination, oppression, and prejudice. They were the target as well as the source of racial cynicism of white Americans, British, and almost all Americans of European descent. The stigma attached to them by these cultural groups remained until (as one may notice) the present time. The labor market in the United States at the close of the 19th century was comprised of poor white farmers and African slaves-descent laborers (using the term Black is a form of discrimination in this case) (Bohmer, 2007). In 1876, an alliance between African slaves-descent laborers and poor whites was defeated by Southern landlords. The alliance was formed out of the perceived oppression of their class by the ruling Southern landlords. For example, their pay was inadequate to support their families. Nonetheless, their working conditions under these Southern planters were really Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ in terms of long-working hours and high rents. Their defeat was magnified y the 1896 Supreme Court ruling that segregation was constitutional. Although their labor produced much of the wealth of the Southern planters, they were never given safety nets (such as social security) in the procurement of their labor in the market. In contradiction to the conception that African-Americans are never interested in environmental issues, here are some African-Americans who contributed much in protecting the environment. George Washington Carver can be regarded as one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s finest agricultural researchers. He was able to develop throughout his lifetime over 325 new products from peanuts and over 100 products from sweet potatoes. He often told his students that nature was his best teacher (A Selection of African-American Environmental Heroes, 2007). Vernon Jones is another African-American who led the struggle to preserve government-owned lands in a county in Georgia. In March 2000, he was able to pass a 125 million dollars bond referendum to acquire public lands for the construction of parks (A Selection of African-American Environmental Heroes, 2007). This is an indication that even if African-Americans are still discriminated, they would never be indifferent to issues that can affect the lives of people outside his ethnic group. Affirmative action can be defined as a set of state policies and objectives created to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, ethnicity, religion, and sex. The United States government under the terms of different presidents implemented a series of affirmative actions in order to eliminate forms of discrimination in the United States. For example, President Truman issued an order to the Bureau of Employment Security to implement nondiscriminatory labor policies (Sykes, 1995). Today, the Equal Employment Opportunities Act was passed to put an end to Ã¢â¬Å"discriminationÃ¢â¬ in the workplace, by giving minority groups opportunities to assert their employment status (Sykes, 1995). These series of affirmative action was the result of struggle of minority groups, especially African-Americans, to assert their rights as citizens of the United States. In the present, however, discrimination in the workplace against minority groups (e. . African-Americans) is never totally eradicated. Redlining, or more particularly service redlining, is the custom of refusing to provide goods and services to people of low-income and minority groups (Fuller, 1998). In the United States, African Americans, Latinos, and other minority groups are experiencing this form of segregation. Some Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ establishments typically create Ã¢â¬Å"excusesÃ¢â¬ for the purpose of not allowing minority groups (especially African-Americans) to procure goods and services. This was the most controversial issue in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. There were different types of services: one for whites, and one for African-Americans. Although this system was abolished, many Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ retail stores in the United States still find Ã¢â¬Å"excusesÃ¢â¬ of not providing goods and services for minority groups. African-Americans today face what sociologists call double jeopardy. Because African-Americans are discriminated, they have difficulty of finding good jobs. It is estimated that a majority of African-Americans in the United States today are in the poverty threshold. They comprised also the majority in service sectors jobs. Their poverty reinforces their minority status. Thus, the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"ladder of discriminationÃ¢â¬ as what sociologists call is also reinforced. African-Americans have the difficulty of upgrading their status by economic means. Thus, white Americans always associate African-Americans with poverty. The institutionalization of discrimination was the most noted issue in African-American history. Before the handing down of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (which abolished segregation in public schools) in May 1954, all public schools in the United States were segregated. African-Americans were provided separate public schools, usually close to their communities. Added to that, the formulation of educational curriculum of some states was also segregated. This was in line with the Ã¢â¬Å"earlyÃ¢â¬ belief of white Americans that higher forms of education were only a matter for white Americans. Segregation could also be noted in the construction of residential areas. Reverse discrimination can be defined as the negative effect of an affirmative action to some members of the dominant ethnic group which is seen as tantamount to another form of discrimination (Pincus, 2002:1). Often some white Americans complained that they were rejected in some jobs because of preferential treatment for African-Americans. They call it Ã¢â¬Å"reverse discrimination. Ã¢â¬ This is though not really a form of discrimination since it does not Ã¢â¬Å"questionÃ¢â¬ the nature of the ethnic group to which one belongs. In the case of African-Americans, the opening of new opportunities is a means to upgrade their economic status. It cannot be a form of discrimination. Glass ceiling can be defined as the barriers or blocks that confront minority groups in reaching the upper ladder of corporate America (The Glass Ceiling for African, Hispanic (Latino), and Asian Americans, 2004). African-Americans today have little difficulty of reaching the upper ladder of society (noted personalities like Oprah, Morgan Freeman, and Janet Jackson serve our examples) although not as easy as that of white Americans. Personally, I identify myself to the cultural group I belong, although I recognize the commonalities between African-American and white cultures (especially those which relate to equality and freedom of the individual).
Saturday, September 28, 2019
This essay describes the salient features of Martin Luther King JrÃ¢â¬â¢s famous speech, Ã¢â¬Å" I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ . It concentrates on reasons which contributed to making it so famous. This speech had many salient features which have made it so famous and acceptable to the audience. These are : Structure : The speech is very well structured. King first builds a base for his arguments, by saying that the demands that follow in his speech were guaranteed to the black Negroes long back.He then alleges that the American government nd the white people have not complied with these rights given to blacks. He then injects courage into the minds of the black audience, by using a special force known as Ã¢â¬Ë repetitionÃ¢â¬â¢. He repeats, Ã¢â¬Å" It is my dream that Ã¢â¬ , many times, and actually succeeds in forcing the minds of black audience to Ã¢â¬Ë seeÃ¢â¬â¢ that dream with him. Force : One more effective element in this speech is the invisible force behind it. The words ar e very strong, and the style is direct. A very direct attack is launched on the American government.The miserable torture that the blacks were undergoing is reported in a very direct, face to fact style. Nothing is indirect or implied. This force is more evident when he paints the picture of his vision of life of the Negroes in future. There is no rhetoric, no sarcasm. This adds the necessary force in the speech, which captivates the audience. Continuity : This is the third impressive feature. The three main parts of the speech, namely, the violation of promise, present condition of Negroes and his uture dream for the Negroes, are interwoven without any pause in between. The switch-over from one part to another part is very natural and automatic. This helps in binding the audience to the speech, till the end.Good use of linguistic tools : This speech uses tools offered by English language in a wonderful way. Many aspects are presented in a metaphoric way, to make the meaning very cl ear and leave no doubt in the minds of audience. The most distinct metaphor is comparing the failure of American government to keep ts promise towards the black Negroes, to a check returned by a bank, citing insufficient funds as a reason. Another impressive metaphor is his comparing the present status of Mississippi as Ã¢â¬Ë sweltering with the heat of injusticeÃ¢â¬â¢, while his dream compares the same Mississippi to an Ã¢â¬Ë Oasis of freedom and justice Ã¢â¬ . His linguistic style is very picturesque, and that is what impresses the audience.For example, Ã¢â¬Å" On the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together on the table of rotherhood Ã¢â¬ . He communicates too many things in sentences which draw a picture in the minds of the audience. The sentences of this speech are seldom long, and never, very long. It is full of short, meaningful sentences. This is another example of excellent use of languag e. Non violence : Martin Luther King has strongly advocated non violence means as a tool for the fight towards freedom. Memories of the brutalities of world war II ( world war II ) and the success of non violence ( Mahatma Gandhi ) as a tool to ring political changes in India, were still afresh in the minds of people.This concept was immediately embraced in America also. Inclusion of specific instruction to fight in a non violent way, made his speech more effective and more acceptable. National flavor : Martin Luther King talks of each and every corner of the nation, by naming it. This adds a national dimension to his speech. There is hardly any region which he has not included in his speech. This helps in making a very wide, national impact.The TV audience : The TV audience must have also been mesmerized by the huge number of people which had gathered at Lincoln Memorial grounds on that day. It compromised of whites also. Inclusion of white people must have made a positive impact i n favor of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s demands, in the minds of TV audience. The erect posture of King, coupled with oozing self confidence must have boosted the spirits of all listeners and spectators. Ã¢â¬Å" I have a dream Ã¢â¬Å", is a great speech even for all times in future !!
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Extent to Which an Organization's Structure Not Only Shapes Its Culture, But Also Its Ability to Transfor - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that a thorough literature review on the subjects of organizational structure, transformation and culture reveals a great wealth of information on the two subjects. Handled individually, it is evident that organizational structure and culture are quite important in the realization of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. Unfortunately, little has been done in covering and unearthing the relationship between structure and culture in an organization. Similarly, the relationship between an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure and its ability to transform and manage change has not been exhaustively discussed or debated. Notwithstanding the fact that the influence of organizational structure on culture and transformation has been overlooked in many studies and practical management of businesses, there exists a rather important interconnection between these aspects of an organization. However, it may be quite a difficult task to distinguish a n organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure and culture since structure always operates within a business culture, implying culture and structure are quite intertwined. While culture refers to the umbrella issues and manner/patterns in which an organization operates, structure refers to the infrastructures, methods, and practices therein. The structure of an organization thus helps ensure that its culture is practiced and run efficiently and consistently. Given this important role of structure in shaping an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and ensuring cultural consistency and efficacy, establishing good structures should be the hallmark of every organization. The structure therefore not only influences and shapes organizational culture but it is also an integral part of the culture. The culture of an organization is also a responsibility of its structure, which relates and deals directly with the settings of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. For instance, cultural issues in an organization such as the workings of the management, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibilities and the handling of disputes and complaints are all directly tied to its structures and how they work. The main way in which structure affects organizational culture is through the role of structure in interconnecting the different groups/teams in an organization hence enabling them to work smoothly to realize organizational and personal objectives and progress. In this regard, the elements of structure most important in shaping an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and its smooth operations include effective communication and coordination among employees and departments. Several theories have been developed to highlight the role of structure in influencing the culture of an organization. The first among these theories is the pre-bureaucratic structure. In this structure, an organization lacks the standardization of tasks and is mostly applicable to small businesses, which are adaptive and have no repeat scenario. The second structural theory is the bureaucratic structure in which larger organisations establish certain processes and procedures to help in meeting their objectives.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Education, Perception, and Gender Bias in Accounting - Essay Example Therefore, its use should be recognised around the world. Without accounting, money would not have a definite manner of being properly utilised. This paper will review the education and bias that women often go through in relation to accounting as a field of study, also, as a career choice that they can make. As many fields in the market today, accounting and finance is considered a manÃ¢â¬â¢s field of expertise. This means that whenever there are opportunities to be filled in relation to accounting and finance, men always get the upper hand. Gender related discrimination and bias have found their way into the working field of accounting. The perception that is created here is that women cannot be accomplished accountants when the chance arises. This perception, as many women are out to prove, is flawed. They are out to prove that whatever men can do, they can do better. The education sector in many countries does not pay keen attention to the number of female accounting students. The number of female students in the accounting class cannot be compared to the number of male students in higher learning institutions, for example, universities and colleges. As seen above, accounting and finance is considered a field dominated by men. However, there are a growing number of female accountants and students in many countries. The encouragement they receive from different quarters like family and the government could be the cause of this rise.
The Bush Foreign Policy - Essay Example Diplomacy may be given a goal of reaching an agreement with a nation that will not agree to the terms set forth by our policy. This is the position that America finds itself in today. The Bush administration has drawn some very clear lines against some very real enemies. Diplomacy has been ineffective due to the conflicting nature of negotiation and the Bush administration's policy of standing pat in a rapidly changing world. Bush's foreign policy has been based on, and in response to, the events of 9/11. That terrorist action changed the way America viewed the rest of the world as well as its own vulnerabilities. It required a reshaping of policy to fulfill the requirement that foreign policy has of keeping the population safe and secure. It called for a swift and immediate overhaul of government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to minimize the possibility of future attacks. It called for a rapid response against the perpetrators to assure the public that everything was being done that could. These first few steps, however admirable, were more designed for national public politics than affecting foreign policy. In the ensuing months, almost every foreign policy decision made has been to support the war on terrorism or to promote the policy on an internal political basis. In the September 17In the September 17, 2002 National Security Strategy paper George Bush stated that the United States would, "... exercise our right of self-defense by acting preemptively against such terrorists, to prevent them from doing harm against our people and our country; and denying further sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists by convincing or compelling states to accept their sovereign responsibilities" (Bush, 2). This declaration, initiated in a Strategic Planning Paper authored by Dick Cheney and Paul Wolfowitz 10 years earlier, signaled a dramatic shift in policy. The policy had shifted from national defense to national offense. It authorized the pre-emptive attack on any nation that may be harboring terrorists or aiding them in any fashion. Though the motivation may have been honorable, the strategy was at best untenable in today's world of elusive terrorists that are able to cross borders and manage funds by concealed accounts. He closed the document by saying, "Today, the distinction between domestic and foreign affairs is diminishing. The characteristics we most cherish-our freedom, our cities, our systems of movement, and modern life-are vulnerable to terrorism" (Bush, 5). Clearly he was crafting a policy that called for war on anyone, anywhere, that threatened his perception of our modern way of life. Much of his foreign policy has been geared toward the enemies that threaten to end the American way of life. He has promoted and advocated for liberalized trade around the globe in an effort to de-politicize the economic systems of the world. He has pushed for free markets and privatization as a means to place democracy in the market place. At stake is our American concept of freedom and the right to human dignity for all men.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
African American Music - Essay Example Could you imagine African American culture without music? This question is rather rhetorical. Floyd defined African-American music as music that emanates directly from the black experience in America, descending from the calls, cries, hollers, spirituals, ragtime, and blues of the slavery and post-slavery periods. This genre includes jazz, rhythm and blues, black gospel, and all the forms to which these genres have given birth (Floyd, 232). Interestingly, no one knows exactly when the blues or jazz music began. Ã¢â¬Å"When asked about the origin of blues, old-time fiddlers in New Orleans replied, the blues? AinÃ¢â¬â¢t no first blues! The blues always beenÃ¢â¬ (Southern, 332). Historically, through their indigenous music of their homeland, slaves brought many characteristics of blues, ragtime, and jazz music. Even though those persons could not bring their instruments and familiar possessions from their country, they did bring music in their hearts and minds. For them music serve d as a way of life in Africa, for celebrations and rituals. For work, pleasure, and freedom in America, the slaves adapted a new kind of music, developing a new culture for themselves by combining parts of the American culture with African culture. The new music of work songs, shouts, hollers, cries, and moans, evolved into the blues, happy and sad songs.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Suggest one - Essay Example However, they must take into consideration the effects of every bill that they propose to be imposed. Every supplement gaining for approval of government to enter the market includes tonnage of paper works and tedious process. With the current situation of the state where the supplements are freely roaming the stores and pharmacies, and there are some drugs that are easily bought over the counter, their move to regulate them may cause these products to be out of market. This can hurt the public especially those who are relying on affordable ways to get treatment for their sickness. There is no therapeutic claim for supplements that is a bare fact. But it can not be denied that there are positive effects that these supplements give to human bodies thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why people keep on patronizing them. When strict regulations on these products are ruled out, some of these supplements can possibly fade in the market circulation causing people relying on them to lose their chances of achieving good health in cheaper and easier ways. People from the government imposing bills and laws must see to the general welfare of the public first. If laws imposed can cause decline for public health, then I think they should think and rethink the limitations of the law to make it beneficial to
Monday, September 23, 2019
This is for Human Growth and Development class (Socw) - Essay Example It proposes that environmental experience shapes personal character. It is not the genetic makeup that controls the biological fate. Two forms of control are, therefore, proposed to influence development; the internal control (genes) in nature and the external control (environment) as per nurture. Nature assumes that the development of characters that deviate from the norm is indication of the expression of defective genes. This causes the concept of victimization and irresponsibility. In the nurture, the gene activity is linked to changes in the conditions that may enhance the potential of inducing dysfunction or disease. The regulation and control of the environment shape an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s biological expression. The environment directly controls the behavior and gene activity (Lipton, 2002). The failure to account failure to account for genetically controlled human when there are not enough genes to code proteins is cited as a drawback to gene determinism (Lipton, 2002). The proficiency of cells to maintain successful and integrated life in the absence of genes reveals that genes are not predominant in cell function. Therefore, genes cannot control biology since they are no self-emergent (Lipton, 2002). Genes cannot self-actualize and are chemically unable to turn on or off at will. Gene expression is under the regulatory control of environmental signals that act through epigenetic mechanisms. In conclusion, genes can be regarded as expressing life but not control. Nurture seems to play a most principal role in human development compared to nature. The change in environment generates need for new
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Marx and WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s Analyses of the Development of Capitalism Essay Capitalism is defined as Ã¢â¬ËAn economic and political system in which a countrys trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is based on the division between two classes, one of which owns the labour of the other. Not only do the upper classes, or the bourgeoisie, own the means of physical production but also the means of Ã¢â¬Ëmental productionÃ¢â¬â¢. They control and manipulate society through the rule of education, religion and the media. Althusser distinguishes between repressive state apparatuses and ideological state apparatuses and argues about how the bourgeoisie manages to maintain its rule. He argues that the repressive includes the police and the army in which use physical force to control the working class as opposed to the ideological apparatuses such as the media and religion which control the development of ideas. A key component of capitalism is that the working class are forced to sell their labour in exchange for wages in order to survive. However, they do not receive an equal exchange for the labour they produce, but only the cost of subsistence. The difference of what the bourgeoisie receive from the labourers and the amount they pay back is called the surplus value, meaning the profit they make. Max Weber was one of the founding fathers of sociology and contributed highly to our knowledge of how society works. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s work can be highlighted by referring to his study The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, first published in 1905 (22 years after the death of Karl Marx in 1883). Weber argues that the Protestant Reformation introduced a new belief system of Calvinism (a form of Protestantism founded by John Calvin during the reformation) which promoted a high work ethic and which eventually led to the rise in capitalism. Calvinists believed that God preordains the Ã¢â¬ËelectÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning of who would be saved after death and go onto heaven and who would not. This could not be changed through hard work or leading a good life as the decision had already been decided. This made Calvinists strive for success, with which they would reinvest into making more money, hence the development of capitalism. Weber distinguishes the differences between the capitalism of greed and wealth in past societies to those of present. Modern day people are pursing profit for its own sake rather than for consumption, hence why the Calvinists reinvested their wealth. Weber calls this the spirit of capitalism. He further argues that this was the reason capitalism was stronger in places like Europe and America and not in other places where Protestantism wasnt so established. Weber also distinguishes between many different existing forms of capitalism including Ã¢â¬Ëtraditional capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëbooty capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢; however the crucial ideal type is the one named modern capitalism, or rational capitalism meaning the repetitive, ongoing economic activity on the basis of rational calculation. Understanding what needs to happen and what the best way of achieving it is, allows for reinvestment and the growth of economic enterprises. He argues that it is the rational side of modern capitalism that distinguishes it from other advanced economic areas such as China and India, both of which had higher and more advanced infrastructures in the 17th century compared to Europe and America. However, Weber is hugely criticised for his understanding of the rise in capitalism due to others believing that it was the peoples relationship with the material forces and there means of subsidence which drove the change. Weber takes a key focus on religion and the impact that had on the rest of society as well as capitalism, whereas Marx focuses on class conflict. Marx argues that through industrialisation capitalism had been forced to increase due to growing separation of the two contrasting classes. One class is the exploiting bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the other class being the proletariat who own nothing but their own labour. Marx predicted that the working class would eventually become conscious of their alienation and exploitation and unite to overthrow capitalism. This would slowly bring in a system of socialism which would gradually evolve into a pure classless communist society lacking in exploitation. He argued that capitalism would disintegrate due to interior tensions, just like every other social system. He believed that communism was inevitably the next stage in the line of historical changes to class systems. Just as feudalism was replaced by capitalism, so capital ism would be replaced by communism. Marx argues that religion performs a different function than that of what Weber argues. Instead it operates as an Ã¢â¬Ëideological weaponÃ¢â¬â¢ used by the bourgeoisie to justify the suffering of the poor as something unchangeable and Ã¢â¬Ëgod-givenÃ¢â¬â¢. Religion persuades the working class that their suffering is honourable and moral and will be favoured in the afterlife. This is evident in the Christianity teaching of it is Ã¢â¬Ëeasier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heavenÃ¢â¬â¢. This manipulates and oppresses the proletariat as it renders them blind to capitalistic trends; ensuing and maintaining false class consciousness. However, Marx can be criticised for ignoring the positive functions that religions perform, made apparent by the psychological adjustment to misfortune that it offers. Abercrombie and Turner (1978) argue that Ã¢â¬Ëin pre capitalist society, while Christianity was a major element of ruling-class ideology, it had only limited impact on the peasantryÃ¢â¬â¢ (A2 Sociology AQA Specification, 2009, pg 13) However, although Marx does argue that religion helps to control the manipulation of ideas of the working class he also believes that it is Ã¢â¬Ëthe heart of the heartless world and the soul of soulless conditionsÃ¢â¬â¢, as it can act as an distraction to dull the pain of exploitation. When comparing and contrasting two very highly influential historians such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, some would argue that it is highly important to look at their overall impact on society as well as humanity. Karl Marx focused highly on philosophy and his work is still influential in many cultures worldwide today. This contrasts to Max Weber who is considered Ã¢â¬Ëone of the fathers of modern thoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ and could be considered one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most intellectual and influential persons. Although both historians share clear similarities, for example both coming from a European Protestant background they also contrast and have distinct differences. Weber criticises MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theory as he believes that his view is too one dimensional and simplistic when looking at inequality. Weber argues that this is due to Marx seeing class as the only important division. Weber argues that status and power also have high impact on the volume of inequality. He points towards the Ã¢â¬Ëpower eliteÃ¢â¬â¢ for evidence and argues that they can rule without actually owning the means of production. Currently there are many independent companies that can control and rule particular labourers without being a part of the bourgeoisie, it is not as simple as Marx likes to preach. A great amount of people are in other situations than the time when Marx was writing, for example Ã¢â¬Ëdealers in information, managers and civil servantsÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning that the relative importance of the struggle between owners and workers has relatively declined. Although Marx and Weber have severe differences in their evaluation of modern capitalism their augments also share many similarities. They both believe that the economic system is a place where Ã¢â¬Å"individuals are directed by abstractionsÃ¢â¬ (Marx). We must also take into account the times of which both sociologists were writing. Weber is writing nearly half a century later and focuses highly on the impact of power, wealth and prestige. He argues that these were the three main factors contributing to capitalism and the distinction of classes. This contrasts to Marx who focuses singularly on the impact of class and how the contrast of bourgeoisie and proletariat impacted on the rise of capitalism. However, both of their summaries of overthrowing capitalism share many similarities. Both sociologists argue that in order for capitalism to be overthrown the working class must unite together to overthrow the ruling class and free themselves from capitalist oppression. Bibliography Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1932). The German Ideology . Moscow: David Riazanov. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848). Manifesto of the communist party. London. Max Weber (1978). Economy and Society. California: University of California Press. Thomas Hobbes (1988). The Leviathan. London : Penguin . Phil Bartle. (2007). Marx vs Weber. Available: http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/cla-mweb.htm. Last accessed 10th October 2012. Louis Althusser. (1970). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. Available: http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/althusser/1970/ideology.htm 970. Last accessed 10th October 2012 Michael Lowy. (2006). Marx, Weber and the Critique of Capitalism . Available: http://internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article1106 . Last accessed 10th October 2012. No Author. (1999). Max Weber. Available: http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/s30f99.htm. Last accessed 10th October 2012. D. Sayer, Capitalism and Modernity: An Excurses on Marx and Weber, pg. 4, London: Routledge, 1991. Cuff, E. C., W. W. Sharrock and D. W. Francis, Perspectives in Sociology, third edition, London, Routledge, 1992.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Can Language Learning Applications Help Improve English? CAN LANGUAGE-LEARNING APPLICATIONS HELP TO IMPROVE PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL? ABSTRACT In todays globalized world, knowing another language opens the door to a vast number of opportunities no matter nationality. This study focuses on language-learning applications since they are an innovative way to learn another language. The investigation needed for this study was done online using Google Scholar and the following sources: Scientists Are More Creative than You Might Imagine and Do Schools Kill Creativity . Language applications can be an excellent way to study a language like English, because those apps motivate young people more than the traditional language class. These applications facilitate the learning of another language in a fun and dynamic way and they will allow the learners to share, debate, create, give opinions, and create a much more creative and participative space. They allow the learners connect in them account on all electronic devices and do not lose progress. Keywords: Applications, language, creative, innovative INTRODUCTION Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom (Roger Bacon). Currently, we live in a globalized world where everyone is connected. If someone want to communicate, they have to know that persons language. Knowing another language is a great academic and professional advantage. Many students want to know another language but they do not because they do not have money to pay for a language course or do not have time to do so. Due to this need, several technology companies created language learning aplications. Perhaps they are not as effective as a lenguage learning course, but with effort they work. Managing another language fluently will make the learner feel amazing about himself because a new world opens. The learner can talk to a lot of people from other countries, watch movies, read books or browse websites. Knowing more than one language makes a person smarter, because that person works parts of him brain that would otherwise be stopped. Language applications are an efficient way for learning new languages like English, for three reasons: they are dynamic and instructive; they allow students to practice their skills; and they can be used on all electronic devices. In essence, the communication of the future will be based in a language that many people talk, so the advantages of a person will depend on how well know that idiom. For these reasons, this research paper is dedicate to know effectiveness and efficiency of language learning applications because they are an example of creativity and innovation that we will need for communication, and it represents the biggest challenge for developing persons . LANGUAGE LEARNING APPLICATIONS ARE DYNAMIC AND INSTRUCTIVE First of all, Language learning applications are dynamic and instructive than a language course to obtain proficiency in another language because the last is a traditional class. The technological advances are an excellent tool that benefits the educational system, since more and more college professors that resort to the service of effective applications to carry out the teaching-learning process in college students. Humanity tries to improve and make the way to generate knowledge more flexible, using the constant technological movement to satisfy the communicative needs that originates the society, so that the mobile technologies have served as base to restructure the educational panorama, contributing to the education. TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION HAS NEVER MADE LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE EASIER One reason is Technology innovation has made learning a foreign language easier because: Today, multimedia features found in e-learning environments incorporate new ways to learn, including: videos, audio, tools, and much more. Plus, multimedia can increase students retention rates and correct mistakes before they turn into bad and embarrassing habits (eLearning INDUSTRY, 2013). The learning is not subject to the physical space of the class nor to the strict hours of the teaching of the matter. College students can create and optimize resources with a few Apps given avoiding the traditional use of textbooks, and adapting these new techniques to the teaching-learning process, making it more visual, creative, and participatory. Ken Robinson, educator, writer and British lecturer, says: people educate their children and want to exploit all of their skills in 15 or 20 years but they do not have a real objective (Robinson, 2006). In other words, they dont know how use this skills. The majority of people do not think in creativity as a tool for the future and this is reflected in the schools. THESE APPS INCLUDES VIDEO GAMES, VIDEOS, GIFS AND THAT MAKE LEARNING FUN TOOLS Also, these apps includes video games like puzzles, hangman, wordit, wordsearch, videos, gifs and tools that make learning fun. Some apps are Duolingo, Wibbu, Busuu, Babbel, and HiNative. The majority of these games have been designed with learning in mind, which means that when the students use them, they are getting the experience of teaching rolled into one nice app. The great thing about these mobile apps is that the child inside the students will love to pull them out and play for enjoyment. So these applications facilitate the learning of another language in a fun and dynamic way. LANGUAGE LEARNING APPLICATIONS ALLOW STUDENTS TO PRACTICETHEIR SKILLS Second of all, Language learning applications allow students to practice their skills because Online courses offer an out with the old, in with the new approach to learning a foreign language (eLearning INDUSTRY, 2013). They offer an introduction to vocabulary and grammar, so they help students gain confidence. According to Albert Einstein, the best scientists are also artists, so it would be illogical to think that science and art are not related (Ossola, 2014). So, it is so important emphasize the utility of those applications, and to pay special attention to the way that we are learning a foreign language. In other words, the future will be only for the most apt, and with this we refer to the persons who know another language THESE APPS REMIND DAILY THAT THE STUDENT MUST ENTER AND MEET THEM DAILY GOAL Also, these apps remind daily that the student must enter and meet the daily goal. If students have not logged in. This helps the user to practice daily, which is fundamental to learning a language. The learner need motivation to learn a second language, and the active and creative participation of the student in the process through the application of individualized learning techniques. Strategies for foreign language learning include skills for memorizing and manipulating key structures of the target language, cognitive strategies for managing and supervising the use of strategies, affective strategies for measuring emotional reactions to learning and for reducing anxiety, and social strategies to maintain the interaction with native speakers and cooperation between students easier. These applications will allow the learners to share, debate, create, give opinions, and create a much more creative and participative space. LANGUAGE LEARNING APPLICATIONS CAN BE USED ON ALL ELECTRONIC DEVICES THEY ARE MORE ACCESSIBLE THAN A COURSE TO LEARN ENGLISH Third of all, Language learning applications can be used on all electronic devices because they run on computer programs, the learner can access online foreign language courses at any time. (eLearning INDUSTRY, 2013). THEY ARE SYNCHRONIZED Another reason to use these apps is because these apps are free. The learner only need an account. One of the most obvious advantages of the use is the easy and speed with which the information is accessed. Another important advantage is the safe storage of personal data, which allows users to save time and quickly access to their preferences, as well as being able to customize the application to their liking. Also, they are synchronized. That means these applications are connected to the internet. The learnerÃâÃ ´s progress is saved and if a learner does not have cellphone, he only needs another electronic device to sign in and continue learning. CONCLUSION In summary, language applications can be an excellent way to study a language like English, because those apps motivate more young people than the traditional language class. There are a number of benefits to using English learning apps to improve language learning skills. They will not even need a tutor on hand to constantly learn English and the learner can access to the account on all electronic devices without problem. These apps are quite funny and to learn playing. That is why they are very useful for learning vocabulary because they are visual and entertaining. For these reasons, I recommend university students who do not have much free time or do not have the sources to pay a course to learn languages that use these applications to improve their level of English mainly. Education as a fundamental development entity, should not be a linear process (Robinson, 2006), those applications should always be updated and synchronized with the need to learn another language. By learning another language we are educating and training for our professional future. REFERENCES Robinson, K., (2006). Do Schools Kill Creativity? TED. Recovered from: https://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity?language=en [09/12/2016]. elearningindustry. (Aug 19, 2013). Below are 5 essential benefits of learning a foreign language through online courses. Recovered from elearningindustry: https://elearningindustry.com/5-essential-benefits-of-learning-foreign-languages-online [09/12/2016].